Criteria Used for Confirmed Breeding

Nest building (by all except wrens and woodpeckers).

Physiological evidence of breeding based on brood patch.

Distraction display or injury feigning.

Used nest or eggshells found.

Recently fledged young, including precocial young out of nest. 

Adults entering or leaving nest site in circumstances indicating nesting.

Adult carrying fecal sac.

Adult seen carrying food for young.

Nest with egg(s).

Nest with young seen or heard.

Criteria used are those established for the Kansas Breeding Bird Atlas Project.